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Under §401 of the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C §13·n, to obtain a federal license for any activity that results in a "discharge into the navigable waters," the license applicant must obtain a certification from the state in which the activity takes place that the discharge complies with several aspects of state water-quality regulation under the Clean Water Act. A common setting in which this requirement has been applied is when a hydropower dam seeks to be relicensed by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC).


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