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This article advances the argument for sustainable harvesting as a broad supplement, even replacement, to the prevailing no-trade policies currently used in many countries and international organizations. It is the author’s premise that the no-trade conservation paradigm is failing to adequately prevent illegal trafficking and endangered wildlife populations are suffering catastrophic losses as a result. This article will explain the current state of prevailing no-trade regulations and efforts to stem the onslaught of illegal wildlife trafficking. The article will then explore two examples of successful sustainable farming and harvesting programs, the American alligator and the Peruvian vicuñas. After a comparison of the benefits and drawbacks of sustainability programs, this article will provide a detailed list of critical elements for development of a successful sustainability program. These guidelines can be modified for the specific needs of a range country or endangered species.